The Confederate States of America (also called the Confederacy, the Confederate States, and the CSA) was the government set up from 1861 to 1865 by eleven southern slave states (South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Texas, Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee and North Carolina) of the United States of America that had declared their secession from the U.S. The Confederacy was eventually defeated in the American Civil War against the Union.
By 1860, sectional disagreements between the American North and South revolved primarily around the maintenance or expansion of slavery, which the slave states were economically dependent upon slave labor to continue running their agrarian economy. Issues over slavery in the west escalated that resulted the slave states to secede from the United States and declared its independence to form the Confederate States of America.
The existence of the Confederacy causes tension between itself and the United States. Hostilities between the Confederacy and the Union began on April 12, 1861 when Confederate military forces attacked a Union military installation at Fort Sumter in South Carolina. Initially the Confederacy saw some military successes on land until the tide against them that led to its defeat and dissolution in April 9, 1865.
The former Confederate states fell under Union occupation during the Reconstruction. However, tensions still remain between North and South following the assassination of U.S. President Abraham Lincoln and criticisms of Lincoln's successor Andrew Johnson by the Radical Republicans. In 1868, Andrew Johnson was impeached and succeeded by Radical Republican Benjamin Wade. Under Wade, the Wade-Davis Bill was passed, leading to increased tensions between the northern and southern states, as the Radical Republican-dominated government strongly condemned the former Confederacy. This provoked a hostile response from the South, which pro-Confederates call themselves the "Redeemers". Reactions to the South from the American public at that time believed that the Southerners wasn't apologetic for the "War on Treason" (in which the civil war was called by the Union), and attempts at reconciliation with the South especially under President Ulysses S. Grant fell null.
For the next two decades, the Redeemers underwent a war of insurgency. By the time of Schuyler Colfax's presidency and that ideas of amending with the South were forgone, the Colfax administration resorted to declaring conventional war and a series of counter-guerrilla operations in eliminating Confederate influence from the Southern government. By 1881, all the former Confederate states were readmitted to the Union with South Carolina, the first state to secede from the Union, came last.
From a political and cultural context, the CSA was widely regarded by the U.S. and its successor state the Coalition of Western Republics with revile and contempt, treating the Confederacy as traitors to the Union. Despite the end of the Confederacy, former Confederate elements persists its animosity toward the U.S. government - especially among them was the terrorist Ku Klux Klan organization - and later the Coalition for over a millenia. Many Southern and Confederate sympathiziers retreated to South America to escape Imperialist America before many of these groups were forcefully exiled to Neu Stuttgart IV, where they founded the Grand Duchy of New Carolina.